This feast, which passes largely unnoticed now, is one of the oldest in the Christian church year. The Council of Agde, held 10 September 506 and presided over by Bishop St Caesarius of Arles, places it among the major feasts of the church, and it had, just like the Nativity of Jesus, three distinct liturgies, a vigil, a dawn and a day one.
isn't just a regional or even Western thing; in the Eastern Church,
where he is more commonly known as St John the Forerunner (maybe that
would be good for those thinking his customary Western name makes it
seem like he was a Baptist in the denominational sense), his birth is
also celebrated on 24 June, and has a vigil and an afterfeast the day
So why 24 June? Well, the details come only
from St Luke, who says that when Gabriel announced to Mary she would
bear the Messiah if she agreed, that her cousin Elisabeth was already
six months pregnant. But hey, if Jesus' birthday is celebrated 25
December, shouldn't it be 25 June?
In our calendar
yes, but they didn't have our calendar. In the Roman Imperial
calendar, days of one month were counted backwards from the first,
called the kalends, from which our word calendar comes btw, of the
next month. Christmas is eight days before the kalends of January, so
St John's birthday was put eight days before the kalends of July, but,
due to our present Germanic way of counting days now, that makes it
fall on 24 June.
No-body, btw, supposes these are the
actual birthdays of either Jesus or John, but only that it puts them
correctly relative to each other.
Either way, it puts
the Nativity of St John around the time of the Summer Solstice, and
some suppose the feast is just a Christian cultural appropriation from
pagan culture in the process of evangelisation. Not likely, since
the Julian calendar that was in use in mediaeval Europe until 1582
puts the solstice a little earlier, in mid-June.
the coincidence with the approximate time of the solstice is
fortunate: though they had no idea it was because of the tilt of the
Earth's axis toward or away from the Sun, they could see that daylight
hours increased and decreased through the year. The Summer Solstice
is the so-called longest day of the year, while all days have 24 hours
it has the most sunlight hours, and sunlight hours begin to decrease
until the Winter Solstice or so-called shortest day of the year with
the fewest sunlight hours. Even as John said of Jesus "He must
increase and I must decrease" (John 3:30).
the solstices are the equinoxes, with about equal daylight and dark
hours, and these four formed the Quarter Days, the four days marking
the turn of the seasons. In the olden times in Mother England, the
Quarter Days were when rents were due, worker contracts were made, and
magistrates had to complete tours of even the most outlying areas of
their jurisdictions to assure that none went unduly long without a
hearing and resolution. Justice delayed is justice denied, as we say.
last was one of the provisions the barons got from King John in the
Magna Carta in 1215. The Magna Carta, meaning Great Charter in
English, was the first time subjects -- though these subjects were
themselves local ruling land owners, barons, the original "free men"
(in German, Freiherren) -- got from a king certain rights and
limitations of royal power as a matter of law, and set in motion a
development of rule of law rather than a king's will, one of whose
descendants is the Constitution of the United States.
latest "Robin Hood" movie takes its context in the beginning of this
development. The Magna Carta version of 1297, which includes
amendments, is still part of English law.
The Quarter Days are:
March. Called Lady Day, also known as the Feast of the Annunciation,
and until 1752, New Years Day. In Mother England 6 April is still
tax day, which you may hear echoed in our 15 April. Hold on, wasn't
that 25 March? Calendar change, remember -- 25 March in the old
Julian calendar became 6 April in the now current Gregorian one.
24 June. The Nativity of St John the Baptist, also known as Midsummer Day, with reference to the Summer Solstice.
September. Michaelmas, the mass on the Feast of St Michael the
Archangel, for which this blog (as with all the Quarter Days, actually)
25 December. Christmas, the mass on the Feast of the Nativity of Jesus.
are usually commemorated in the church calendar on the day of their
death, that being the day of their birth into eternity, but Jesus, his
mother Mary, and St John the Forerunner are the only three whose
births into this life are also commemorated.
to celebrate -- John, and even more importantly his whole
significance, Jesus whose forerunner he was, the development of our
present form of governance, Summer and all the daylight and warmth!
And a really cool movie to see!
And may you have pleasant, uh, Midsummer Night's dreams too!
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